Object with buffer protocol required

  • Hi, I was trying to send ASCII txt from Lopy4 to gateway where I now tried to send the ascii txt in packets but based on line by line so that I can easily reconstruct the ascii txt on the receive node/gateway.

    I used the code below;

    from network import LoRa
    import socket
    import ubinascii
    import struct
    from time import sleep
    LORA_FREQUENCY = 915000000
    LORA_NODE_DR = 3
    lora = LoRa(mode=LoRa.LORAWAN, region=LoRa.AU915)
    dev_addr = struct.unpack(">l", ubinascii.unhexlify('0024f28c'))[0]
    nwk_swkey = ubinascii.unhexlify('fce40d8e91545d50e2f914022f66a0cb')
    app_swkey = ubinascii.unhexlify('c003d97951bf56d7e1ec8d8f0f9d2cee')
    lora.join(activation=LoRa.ABP, auth=(dev_addr, nwk_swkey, app_swkey))
    s.setsockopt(socket.SOL_LORA, socket.SO_DR, LORA_NODE_DR)
    s = socket.socket(socket.AF_LORA, socket.SOCK_RAW)
    f = open("SIGN.txt", "rb")
    n = 30
    def split(s, n):
        if len(s) <= n:
            return [s]
            return split(s[:n], n) + split(s[n:], n)
    if __name__ == "__main__":
        while True:
            line = f.readline()
            if not line:
                print("Finished Printing")
            send_packet = split(line, n)

    But upon execution, I came with the error saying 'Object with buffer protocol required' (error nature attached). I tried to browse for how to build buffer protocol for this program but could not figure out. Any help would be appreciated.

    Thank you in advance


  • @robert-hh Thank you so much. Thank you for correcting me. Yes now I am able to send successfully.

  • @phusy012 You supplied a list to send, but send requires a bytearray, bytes-object or string. The function split and the logic you are calling seems not to match. If you want split to return a list of smaller chunks, the you must have send to iterate over these chunks, like:

            send_packet = split(line, n)
            for packet in send_packet:

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