Yep I used that library and the pololu breakout board. I can't really give you an exact explanation as to what was going on because I didn't connect the signals to a logic analyser/oscilloscope but the only way I could get the module to start responding was with a full reboot. The sensor is very complex and the library doesn't fully implement everything, and my guess is it doesn't recover from errors very well requiring the full reboot. It works really reliably if I don't fiddle with the wires and make sure it has a clean boot.
Try lowering your baud rate like I did:
i2c = I2C(1, pins=('P6', 'P5'), baudrate=5000)
v = VL53L0X.VL53L0X(i2c)